Other bulletins in this series include:

Breast Surgery

Sunday, 7 January 2018

Respiratory Viruses in Invasively Ventilated Critically Ill Patients—A Prospective Multicenter Observational Study

Respiratory Viruses in Invasively Ventilated Critically Ill Patients—A Prospective Multicenter Observational Study

van Someren Gréve, F, et al
Critical Care Medicine: January 2018 - Volume 46 - Issue 1 - p 29–36

Objectives: The presence of respiratory viruses and the association with outcomes were assessed in invasively ventilated ICU patients, stratified by admission diagnosis. Design: Prospective observational study. Setting: Five ICUs in the Netherlands. Patients: Between September 1, 2013, and April 30, 2014, 1,407 acutely admitted and invasively ventilated patients were included. Interventions: None. 
Measurements and Main Results: Nasopharyngeal swabs and tracheobronchial aspirates were collected upon intubation and tested for 14 respiratory viruses. Out of 1,407 patients, 156 were admitted because of a severe acute respiratory infection and 1,251 for other reasons (non–severe acute respiratory infection). Respiratory viruses were detected in 28.8% of severe acute respiratory infection patients and 17.0% in non–severe acute respiratory infection (p < 0.001). In one third, viruses were exclusively detected in tracheobronchial aspirates. Rhinovirus and human metapneumovirus were more prevalent in severe acute respiratory infection patients (9.6% and 2.6% vs 4.5 and 0.2%; p = 0.006 and p < 0.001). In both groups, there were no associations between the presence of viruses and the number of ICU-free days at day 28, crude mortality, and mortality in multivariate regression analyses. 
Conclusions: Respiratory viruses are frequently detected in acutely admitted and invasively ventilated patients. Rhinovirus and human metapneumovirus are more frequently found in severe acute respiratory infection patients. Detection of respiratory viruses is not associated with worse clinically relevant outcomes in the studied cohort of patients.

Pressure injuries in intensive care: What is new?

Pressure injuries in intensive care: What is new?

Llaurado-Serra M, Afonso,E.
Intensive and Critical Care Nursing Article in Press January 2018

The European Pressure Ulcer Advisory Panel defines a pressure injury (PI) as a “localised injury to the skin and/or underlying tissue usually over a bony prominence, as a result of pressure or pressure in combination with shear” (European Pressure Ulcer Advisory Panel and National Pressure Ulcer Advisory Panel, 2014). Occasionally, injury ulcers can also appear on soft tissues subjected to external pressure by different materials or clinical devices (García-Fernández et al., 2016). PI has been demonstrated to increase mortality, morbidity and associated costs (Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, 2014) and Intensive care patients are one of the most vulnerable populations (Cooper, 2013).

Acute Systemic Complications of Convulsive Status Epilepticus—A Systematic Review

Acute Systemic Complications of Convulsive Status Epilepticus—A Systematic Review

Sutter, R et al
Critical Care Medicine: January 2018 - Volume 46 - Issue 1 - p 138–145

Objectives: Status epilepticus is a neurologic emergency with high morbidity and mortality requiring neurointensive care and treatment of systemic complications. This systematic review compiles the current literature on acute systemic complications of generalized convulsive status epilepticus in adults and their immediate clinical impact along with recommendations for optimal neurointensive care. 
Data Sources: We searched PubMed, Medline, Embase, and the Cochrane library for articles published between 1960 and 2016 and reporting on systemic complications of convulsive status epilepticus. Study Selection: All identified studies were screened for eligibility by two independent reviewers. Data Extraction: Key data were extracted using standardized data collection forms. Data Synthesis: Thirty-two of 3,046 screened articles were included. Acute manifestations and complications reported in association with generalized convulsive status epilepticus can affect all organ systems fueling complex cascades and multiple organ interactions. Most reported complications result from generalized excessive muscle contractions that increase body temperature and serum potassium levels and may interfere with proper and coordinated function of respiratory muscles followed by hypoxia and respiratory acidosis. Increased plasma catecholamines can cause a decay of skeletal muscle cells and cardiac function, including stress cardiomyopathy. Systemic complications are often underestimated or misinterpreted as they may mimic underlying causes of generalized convulsive status epilepticus or treatment-related adverse events. 
Conclusions: Management of generalized convulsive status epilepticus should center on the administration of antiseizure drugs, treatment of the underlying causes, and the attendant systemic consequences to prevent secondary seizure-related injuries. Heightened awareness, systematic clinical assessment, and diagnostic workup and management based on the proposed algorithm are advocated as they are keys to optimal outcome.

Critical Care Organizations: Business of Critical Care and Value/Performance Building

Critical Care Organizations: Business of Critical Care and Value/Performance Building

Leung, Set al
Critical Care Medicine:January 2018 - Volume 46 - Issue 1 - p1–11

Objective: New, value-based regulations and reimbursement structures are creating historic care management challenges, thinning the margins and threatening the viability of hospitals and health systems. The Society of Critical Care Medicine convened a taskforce of Academic Leaders in Critical Care Medicine on February 22, 2016, during the 45th Critical Care Congress to develop a toolkit drawing on the experience of successful leaders of critical care organizations in North America for advancing critical care organizations (Appendix 1). The goal of this article was to provide a roadmap and call attention to key factors that adult critical care medicine leadership in both academic and nonacademic setting should consider when planning for value-based care. Design: Relevant medical literature was accessed through a literature search. Material published by federal health agencies and other specialty organizations was also reviewed. Collaboratively and iteratively, taskforce members corresponded by electronic mail and held monthly conference calls to finalize this report. Setting: The business and value/performance critical care organization building section comprised of leaders of critical care organizations with expertise in critical care administration, healthcare management, and clinical practice. 
Measurements and Main Results: Two phases of critical care organizations care integration are described: “horizontal,” within the system and regionalization of care as an initial phase, and “vertical,” with a post-ICU and postacute care continuum as a succeeding phase. The tools required for the clinical and financial transformation are provided, including the essential prerequisites of forming a critical care organization; the manner in which a critical care organization can help manage transformational domains is considered. Lastly, how to achieve organizational health system support for critical care organization implementation is discussed. 
Conclusions: A critical care organization that incorporates functional clinical horizontal and vertical integration for ICU patients and survivors, aligns strategy and operations with those of the parent health system, and encompasses knowledge on finance and risk will be better positioned to succeed in the value-based world.

Perceptions of Risk and Safety in the ICU: A Qualitative Study of Cognitive Processes Relating to Staffing

Perceptions of Risk and Safety in the ICU: A Qualitative Study of Cognitive Processes Relating to Staffing
D’Lima, D et al

Critical Care Medicine: January 2018 - Volume 46 - Issue 1 - p 60–70

Objectives: The aims of this study were to 1) examine individual professionals’ perceptions of staffing risks and safe staffing in intensive care and 2) identify and examine the cognitive processes that underlie these perceptions. 

Design: Qualitative case study methodology with nurses, doctors, and physiotherapists. Setting: Three mixed medical and surgical adult ICUs, each on a separate hospital site within a 1,200-bed academic, tertiary London hospital group. Subjects: Forty-four ICU team members of diverse professional backgrounds and seniority. Interventions: None. Main Results: Four themes (individual, team, unit, and organizational) were identified. Individual care provision was influenced by the pragmatist versus perfectionist stance of individuals and team dynamics by the concept of an “A” team and interdisciplinary tensions. Perceptions of safety hinged around the importance of achieving a “dynamic balance” influenced by the burden of prevailing circumstances and the clinical status of patients. Organizationally, professionals’ risk perceptions affected their willingness to take personal responsibility for interactions beyond the unit. 
Conclusions: This study drew on cognitive research, specifically theories of cognitive dissonance, psychological safety, and situational awareness to explain how professionals’ cognitive processes impacted on ICU behaviors. Our results may have implications for relationships, management, and leadership in ICU. First, patient care delivery may be affected by professionals’ perfectionist or pragmatic approach. Perfectionists’ team role may be compromised and they may experience cognitive dissonance and subsequent isolation/stress. Second, psychological safety in a team may be improved within the confines of a perceived “A” team but diminished by interdisciplinary tensions. Third, counter intuitively, higher “situational” awareness for some individuals increased their stress and anxiety. Finally, our results suggest that professionals have varying concepts of where their personal responsibility to minimize risk begins and ends, which we have termed “risk horizons” and that these horizons may affect their behavior both within and beyond the unit.

Time Course of Septic Shock in Immunocompromised and Nonimmunocompromised Patients

Time Course of Septic Shock in Immunocompromised and Nonimmunocompromised Patients

Jamme, M et al
Critical Care Medicine: December 2017 - Volume 45 - Issue 12 - p 2031–2039

Objectives: To address the impact of underlying immune conditions on the course of septic shock with respect to both mortality and the development of acute infectious and noninfectious complications. Design: An 8-year (2008–2015) monocenter retrospective study. Setting: A medical ICU in a tertiary care center. Patients: Patients diagnosed for septic shock within the first 48 hours of ICU admission were included. Patients were classified in four subgroups with respect to their immune status: nonimmunocompromised and immunocompromised distributed into hematologic or solid malignancies and nonmalignant immunosuppression. Outcomes were in-hospital death and the development of ischemic and hemorrhagic complications and ICU-acquired infections. The determinants of death and complications were addressed by multivariate competing risk analysis. Interventions: None. 
Measurements and Main Results: Eight hundred one patients were included. Among them, 305 (38%) were immunocompromised, distributed into solid tumors (122), hematologic malignancies (106), and nonmalignant immunosuppression (77). The overall 3-day, in-ICU, and in-hospital mortality rates were 14.1%, 37.3%, and 41.3%, respectively. Patients with solid tumors displayed increased in-hospital mortality (cause-specific hazard, 2.20 [95% CI, 1.64–2.96]; p < 0.001). ICU-acquired infections occurred in 211 of the 3-day survivors (33%). In addition, 95 (11.8%) and 70 (8.7%) patients exhibited severe ischemic or hemorrhagic complications during the ICU stay. There was no association between the immune status and the occurrence of ICU-acquired infections. Nonmalignant immunosuppression and hematologic malignancies were independently associated with increased risks of severe ischemic events (cause-specific hazard, 2.12 [1.14–3.96]; p = 0.02) and hemorrhage (cause-specific hazard, 3.17 [1.41–7.13]; p = 0.005), respectively. 
Conclusions: The underlying immune status impacts on the course of septic shock and on the susceptibility to ICU-acquired complications. This emphasizes the complexity of sepsis syndromes in relation with comorbid conditions and raises the question of the relevant endpoints in clinical studies.

Oxygen Thresholds and Mortality During Extracorporeal Life Support in Adult Patients

Oxygen Thresholds and Mortality During Extracorporeal Life Support in Adult Patients

Munshi, L et al
Critical Care Medicine: December 2017 - Volume 45 - Issue 12 - p 1997–2005

Objectives: Extracorporeal life support can lead to rapid reversal of hypoxemia and shock; however, it can also result in varying degrees of hyperoxia. Recent data have suggested an association between hyperoxia and mortality; however, this conclusion has not been consistent across the literature. We evaluated the association between oxygenation thresholds and mortality in three cohorts of extracorporeal life support patients. 
Design: We performed a retrospective cohort study using the Extracorporeal Life Support Organization Registry. Setting: We evaluated the relationship between oxygenation measured 24 hours after extracorporeal membrane oxygenation onset and mortality (2010–2015). Patients: The extracorporeal life support cohorts were as follows: 1) veno-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation for respiratory failure, 2) veno-arterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation for cardiogenic shock, and 3) extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Interventions: The relationships between hypoxemia (PaO2 < 60mm Hg), normoxia (PaO2 60–100mm Hg), moderate hyperoxia (PaO2 101–300mm Hg), extreme hyperoxia (PaO2 > 300 mm Hg), and mortality were evaluated across three extracorporeal life support cohorts. 
Measurements and Main Results: Seven hundred sixty-five patients underwent veno-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, 775 patients underwent veno-arterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, and 412 underwent extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation. During veno-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, hypoxemia (odds ratio, 1.68; 95% CI, 1.09–2.57) and moderate hyperoxia (odds ratio, 1.66; 95% CI, 1.11–2.50) were associated with increased mortality compared with normoxia. There was no association between oxygenation and mortality for veno-arterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. Moderate hyperoxia was associated with increased mortality during extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation compared with normoxia (odds ratio, 1.77; 95% CI, 1.03–3.30). An exploratory analysis did not find more specific PaO2 thresholds associated with mortality within moderate hyperoxia. 
Conclusions: Moderate hyperoxia was associated with increased mortality in patients undergoing veno-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation for respiratory failure and extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Hypoxemia was associated with an increased mortality in veno-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. No association was seen between oxygenation and mortality in veno-arterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation which may be due to early death driven by the underlying disease. 

Dysphagia in Mechanically Ventilated ICU Patients (DYnAMICS): A Prospective Observational Trial

Dysphagia in Mechanically Ventilated ICU Patients (DYnAMICS): A Prospective Observational Trial

Schefold, J et al

Critical Care Medicine: December 2017 - Volume 45 - Issue 12 - p 2061–2069

Objectives: Swallowing disorders may be associated with adverse clinical outcomes in patients following invasive mechanical ventilation. We investigated the incidence of dysphagia, its time course, and association with clinically relevant outcomes in extubated critically ill patients. 
Design: Prospective observational trial with systematic dysphagia screening and follow-up until 90 days or death. Settings: ICU of a tertiary care academic center. 
Patients: One thousand three-hundred four admissions of mixed adult ICU patients (median age, 66.0 yr [interquartile range, 54.0–74.0]; Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation-II score, 19.0 [interquartile range, 14.0–24.0]) were screened for postextubation dysphagia. Primary ICU admissions (n = 933) were analyzed and followed up until 90 days or death. Patients from an independent academic center served as confirmatory cohort (n = 220). 
Interventions: Bedside screening for dysphagia was performed within 3 hours after extubation by trained ICU nurses. Positive screening triggered confirmatory specialist bedside swallowing examinations and follow-up until hospital discharge. 
Measurements and Main Results: Dysphagia screening was positive in 12.4% (n = 116/933) after extubation (18.3% of emergency and 4.9% of elective patients) and confirmed by specialists within 24 hours from positive screening in 87.3% (n = 96/110, n = 6 missing data). The dysphagia incidence at ICU discharge was 10.3% (n = 96/933) of which 60.4% (n = 58/96) remained positive until hospital discharge. Days on feeding tube, length of mechanical ventilation and ICU/hospital stay, and hospital mortality were higher in patients with dysphagia (all p < 0.001). The univariate hazard ratio for 90-day mortality for dysphagia was 3.74 (95% CI, 2.01–6.95; p < 0.001). After adjustment for disease severity and length of mechanical ventilation, dysphagia remained an independent predictor for 28-day and 90-day mortality (excess 90-d mortality 9.2%). 
Conclusions: Dysphagia after extubation was common in ICU patients, sustained until hospital discharge in the majority of affected patients, and was an independent predictor of death. Dysphagia after mechanical ventilation may be an overlooked problem. Studies on underlying causes and therapeutic interventions seem warranted.