Urday, S et al
Objectives: Intracerebral hemorrhage is a devastating disorder with no current treatment. Whether perihematomal edema is an independent predictor of neurologic outcome is controversial. We sought to determine whether perihematomal edema expansion rate predicts outcome after intracerebral hemorrhage. Design: Retrospective cohort study. Setting: Tertiary medical center. Patients: One hundred thirty-nine consecutive supratentorial spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage patients 18 years or older admitted between 2000 and 2013. Interventions: None. Measurements and Main Results: Intracerebral hemorrhage, intraventricular hemorrhage, and perihematomal edema volumes were measured from CT scans obtained at presentation, 24-hours, and 72-hours postintracerebral hemorrhage. Perihematomal edema expansion rate was the difference between initial and follow-up perihematomal edema volumes divided by the time interval. Logistic regression was performed to evaluate the relationship between 1) perihematomal edema expansion rate at 24 hours and 90-day mortality and 2) perihematomal edema expansion rate at 24 hours and 90-day modified Rankin Scale score. Perihematomal edema expansion rate between admission and 24-hours postintracerebral hemorrhage was a significant predictor of 90-day mortality (odds ratio, 2.97; 95% CI, 1.48–5.99; p = 0.002). This association persisted after adjusting for all components of the intracerebral hemorrhage score (odds ratio, 2.21; 95% CI, 1.05–4.64; p = 0.04). Similarly, higher 24-hour perihematomal edema expansion rate was associated with poorer modified Rankin Scale score in an ordinal shift analysis (odds ratio, 2.40; 95% CI, 1.37–4.21; p = 0.002). The association persisted after adjustment for all intracerebral hemorrhage score components (odds ratio, 2.07; 95% CI, 1.12–3.83; p = 0.02). Conclusions: Faster perihematomal edema expansion rate 24-hours postintracerebral hemorrhage is associated with worse outcome. Perihematomal edema may represent an attractive translational target for secondary injury after intracerebral hemorrhage.