Evaluation of pain in ICU patients. CHEST vol 135(4), April 2009, p.1069-1074 [journal article].
Puntillo, K., Pasero, C., Li, D., Mularski, R.A., Grap, J.M., Erstad, B.L., Varkey, B., Gilbert, H.C., Medina, J. Sessler, C.N.
Pain is a common and distressing symptom in ICU patients. Yet a major challenge exists in assessing and evaluating the pain. Although the patient's self-report of pain is the "gold standard" for pain assessment, other methods must be considered when patients are unable